It’s called the efficiency paradox: the notion that as goods and services become more efficient to produce, we consume more of them. This might seem like a good thing but it’s undermining efforts to reduce emissions and curb the effects of climate change. Think of cheap food, fast fashion, €10 air fares. They’re all predicated on greater industry efficiencies.
Fuel efficiency in aircraft tends to improve by 1-2 per cent a year, but passenger demand typically goes up by 3-4 per cent a year also. The result is more emissions despite more fuel efficient aircraft.